Today I am happy to share all these medical anatomy mnemonics .These are collected from various offline and online sources including text books.If you know any other anatomy mnemonics please share via comments.
Note: Thyrocervical trunk further branches out into inferior thyroid, transverse, and suprascapular; costocervical branches out to deep cervical and supreme intercostal
Axillary artery branches
“Screw The Lawyer Save A Patient”:
Anterior circumflex humeral
Posterior circumflex humeral
Alternatively: “Some Times Life Seems A Pain”.
Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation. Superior oblique: Medial eye rotation.
Action of the obliques is opposite to their names. Action of the rectii is rightly fitting to their names. Both superiors cause intorsion and both inferiors cause extorsion.
Elbow: muscles that flex it Three B’s Bend the
Murphy’s point organ [for Irish] “Murphy was an Irishman
(and Murphy is a classic Irish surname), and Ireland=green”:
Green organ in body is gallbladder, so Murphy’s point is the gall bladder.
Anteflexed vs. anteverted: what bodypart each describes “Anteflexed
and Anteverted both bend toward Anterior”.
· The “V” words go together: Verted is for the cerVix (therefore
flexed must be uterus).
Foramen spinosum: location on base of skull Foramen spinosum
is adjacent to the spine of sphenoid.
Pterygoid muscles: function of lateral vs. medial “Look at
how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of ‘Lateral’ or ‘Medial’
“La”: your jaw is now open, so Lateral opens mouth.
“Me”: your jaw is still closed, so medial closes the
Face muscles: large muscle groups’ cranial innervation Mandibular
Facial nerve: Facial expression.
Meckel’s diverticulum details 2 inches long.
2 feet from end of ileum.
2 times more common in men.
2% occurrence in population.
2 types of tissues may be present.
· Note: “di-” means “two”, so diverticulum is the thing
with all the twos
Grey vs. White Rami Communicantes
WhIte = On the Way In to the sympathetic trunk
GrEy = Exiting the sympathetic trunk
-Ptosis (eyelid drooping)
-Anhidrosis (no sweating)
-Miosis (pupil constriction)
How to remember Cricoarytenoids: Abductor vs. Adductor
When aliens abduct you, they Probe you, so posterior cricoarytenoids abduct.
Lateral therefore is adduct by default.
Hyoid Bone: Muscle Attachments
“Christ, He Didn’t Screw Girls Much. That’s Obvious, Stupid!”
Note: The first sentence is for 6 muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly. Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial
Carpal Bones “Sally Likes To Play
The Tiny Chrome Harmonica”:
· Proximal row lateral to medial:
· Distal row, lateral to medial:
Thoracoacromial artery branches ABCD:
Scrotum layers “Some Days Eddie Can
Irritate People Very Thourougly”:
External spermatic fascia
Internal spermatic fascia
Parietal tunica vaginalis
Visceral tunica vaginalis
External carotid artery branches “Sally Ate
Lots Of Fresh Produce March Through September”:
Occipital (O before F is an extremely common variation)
Ankle: anterior compartment of leg contents “The Hamptons
Are Never Dull Parties”:
· From medial malleolus:
Tibialis anterior tendon
(Extensor) Hallacus longus
Artery (anterior tibial)
Nerve (deep peroneal)
Cricoarytenoids: abductor vs. adductor When aliens abduct
you, they Probe you.
Posterior cricoarytenoids abduct. Lateral therefore is adduct by
Ansa cervicalis nerves “GHost THought SOmeone
STupid SHot Irene”:
Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung “A PALM Seed
Makes Another Little Palm”:
· In order from superior to inferior:
Lower limb: muscles between upper legs “There’s a GAP
between upper legs when you sit without closing your knees”:
Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels “Voice Of
· In order from smallest to highest spinal number:
Vena cava: T8
· Note: Voice Of America (VOA) is a radio broadcast station.
Serratus Anterior: nerve vs. blood LoNg thoracic:
LAteral thoracic: Artery
Elbow joint: capitulum vs. trochlea CUTER:
Sperm: path through male reproductive system “My boyfriend’s
name is STEVE”:
Popliteal fossa: medial to lateral arrangment “Serve
And Volley Next Ball”:
· Lateral and medial heads of Gastrocnemius are inferior borders.
-Posterior superior alveolar
-Middle superior alveolar
-Anterior superior alveolar
-Artery of the pterygoid canal
*For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic, corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. carpi radialis brevis)
-Inf. alveolar=branches into nerve to mylohyoid(going to floor of mouth) and mental out of mental foramen
-Lingual=chorda tympani from CNVII joins lingual in infratemporal fossa carrying preganglionic parasympathetics to submandibular ganglion where postganglionic fibers travel via terminal branches of the lingual nerve to the SUBMANDIBULAR and SUBLINGUAL salivary glands
Vasculature on the Back of Neck
From either direction, occipital Artery, greater occipital Nerve, greater occipital Nerve, occipital Artery”
Which is bigger- Tib or Fib?
Fibula is smaller
Femoral artery: Branches
“Put My Leg Down Please”
•Medial circumferential femoral artery
•Lateral circumferential femoral artery
•Descending genicular artery
Tarsal tunnel: Structures passing through
“Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”
•flexor Digitorum longus
•Posterior tibial artery
•flexor Hallucis longus
.Muscles of MEDIAL compartment of the THIGH
” G.P. ADDs a Bloody Lot of Margarine ” – make their
inner thighs flabby
•ADDUCTORS – Brevis, Longus, Magnus
Origin: All arise from Pubis, except Pectineus = Pubic
Insertion: All are inserted to Femur, except Gracilis =
Muscles of the LATERAL compartment of LEG
” Fly Long Superficial Fly Boy”
•Superficial fibular nerve = innervation for both
6.Femoral triangle: Boundaries
“Femoral triangle is shaped like a SAIL”:
“Tall Californian Navy Medcial Interns Lay Cuties” or
“Tiger Cubs Need MILC”
In order (right foot, superior to inferior, medial to
Alternatively “Tiger Cubs Need MILC”:
.Inversion and Eversion muscles of leg
Think: Inversion and Eversion muscles of leg follow
the “Second letter rule”.
Anterior compartment of leg: Structures
” TEA DEPt. ”
•Extensor hallucis longus
•Anterior tibial artery
•Deep peroneal nerve
•Extensor digitorum longus
Popliteal fossa: medial to lateral arrangement
“Serve And Volley Next Ball”:
•Lateral and medial heads of Gastrocnemius are
Carpal bones “Some Lovers Try Positions
That They Can’t Handle”:
· Proximal row then distal row, both lateral-to-medial:
· Alternatively: “Scared Lovers…”
· Alternatively: “Senior Lecturers…”.
Extrinsic muscles of tongue [for pro soccer fans] “Paris
St. Germain’s Hour”:
· PSG is a French soccer team (foreign), hence extrinsic comes to mind.
Autonomics to the gut “The PARAsympathetics follow a
rule of TWO” [pair = two]:
· The vagus does the top, the sacral splanchnics the outflow tract.
“The sympathetics follow a rule of threes”:
· Greater, lesser, least splanchnic nerves go to the celiac,superior and
inferior mesenteric ganglion.
External carotid artery branches “Some Angry
Lady Figured Out PMS”:
Vagus nerve: path into thorax “I Left my Aunt
Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior descending into the thorax.
Carpal bones “Happy Cat Tom Took
Pie To Little Sister”:
Brachial plexus: branches of posterior cord STAR:
Subscapular [upper and lower]
Saphenous veins: path of great vs. small at malleolus “MAGdelaine
has varicose veins” [The saphenous veins are important for varicose veins]:
Medial maleolus, Anterior to maleolus, and Great saphenous
Then the opposites of these go together: Small saphenous is posterior
to the lateral maleolus.
Menisci attachments in knee “Each meniscus has something
attached to it”:
The medial meniscus has the medial collateral ligament.
The lateral meniscus is attached to the popliteal muscle.
Spermatic cord contents “3 arteries, 3 nerves,
3 other things”:
3 arteries: testicular, ductus deferens, cremasteric.
3 nerves: genital branch of the genitofemoral, cremasteric, autonomics.
3 other things: ductus deferens, pampiniform plexus, lymphatics.
· Note some argument about this: Moore doesn’t put in cremasteric nerve, Lumley
puts in inguinal…
Adductor magnus innervation “AM SO!”:
Adductor Magnus innervated by Sciatic and Obturator.
Scalp layers SCALP:
· From superficial to deep:
Loose areolar tissue
Lumbar plexus roots “2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2
2 nerves from 1 root: Ilioinguinal (L1), Iliohypogastric (L1).
2 nerves from 2 roots: Genitofemoral (L1,L2), Lateral Femoral
2 nerves from 3 roots: Obturator (L2,L3,L4), Femoral (L2,L3,L4).
Female pelvic organs’ blood supply “3 organs, each
get 2 blood supplies”:
Uterus: uterine, vaginal.
Rectum: middle rectal, inferior rectal [inferior rectal is the end of pudendal].
Bladder: superior vesical, inferior vesical.
Cervical plexus: arrangement of the important nerves “GLAST”:
· 4 compass points: clockwise from north on the right side of neck:
Accessory nerve pops out between L and S
Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with
quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres “VC goes with VC”:
The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava
[posterior]. Therefore, quadrate and teres must be on anterior by default.
Joints in the midline “SC”:
In medial line, below Second Cervical, joints are Secondary
Cartilaginous and usually have a diSC.
· Notes: secondary cartilaginous is also known as symphysis. The one that
doesn’t have a disc is xiphi-sternal.
Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group There are five,
like five digits of your hand.
Place your thumb into your palm, then lay that hand palm down on your other arm,
as shown in diagram.
Your 4 fingers now show distribution: spells PFPF [pass/fail, pass/fail]:
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Your thumb below your 4 fingers shows the muscle which is deep to the other
four: Flexor digitorum superficialis.
Median and ulnar nerves: common features Each supply 1/2 of
flexor digitorum profundus.
Each supplies 2 lumbricals.
Each has a palmar cutaneous nerve that pops off prematurely.
Each supplies an eminence group of muscles [ulnar: hypothenar. median: thenar].
Each enters forearm through two heads [ulnar: heads of flexor carpi ulnaris.
median: heads of pronator teres].
Each has no branches in upper arm.
Each makes two fingers claw when cut at wrist.
Each supplies a palmaris [median: palmaris longus. ulnar: palmaris brevis].
Thyroids: relative sizes Thyroid looks like a bra (see
Breasts are bigger in women, so thyroid bigger in women.
Pregnant women have biggest breasts of all, so they have the biggest thyroids.
Superior thyroid artery branches “May I Softly
Squeeze Charlie’s Girl?”:
Abdominal muscles “Spare TIRE around their abdomen”:
Internal abdominal oblique
External abdominal oblique
Perineal vs. peroneal Perineal is in between
Peroneal is on the leg.
Cranial bones “PEST OF 6”:
· The 6 just reminds that there’s 6 of them to remember.
Bowel components “Dow Jones Industrial
Average Closing Stock Report”:
· From proximal to distal:
· Alternatively: to include the cecum, “Dow Jones Industrial
Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”.
Lung lobes: segments of right middle lobe “ML=ML”:
Segments of Middle Lobe are Medial & Lateral.
*Remember, the “trapezi-UM” is under the “thUMb.”
*Scaphocephaly is when your head is too long, so this is the longest
*Capital “caps” off (top middle)
Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion Plantar flexion
occurs when you squish a Plant with your foot.
Thyroid: isthmus location “Rings 2,3,4 make the
Isthmus overlies tracheal rings 2,3,4
Thoracic duct: which half of upper body does it drain Know
drains all of lower body, but was it the right or the left part of the upper
Answer: its Lymph from the Left of the upper body.
Soleus vs. gastrocnemius muscle function “Stand on
your Soles. Explosive gas”:
You stand on soles of your shoes, so Soleus is for posture.
Gasoline is explosive, so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement.
Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg Second letter rule for
· Eversion muscles:
· Inversion muscles:
Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular
divisions There’s a Hepatic “H” on inferior of liver. One
vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and
the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides
the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena
cava carries blood, it’s fortunate that it’s the divider for blood halves).
Supination vs. pronation: which is more powerful Screws were
designed to be tightened well by majority of people.
“Righty tighty”: to tighten screws you turn to the right.
Majority of people are right-handed.
Turning right-hand to the right is supination.
Pleura surface markings “All the even ribs, in order:
2,4,6,8,10,12 show its route”:
Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly
Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart
Rib6: both diverge laterally
Rib8: midclavicular line
Rib10: midaxillary line
Rib12: the back
Palmaris longus: location, relative to wrist nerves “The
Palmaris between two Palmars”:
Palmaris longus is between the Palmar cutaneous branch of Ulnar
nerve and Palmar cutaneous branch of Median nerve.
Carpal tunnel syndrome causes MEDIAN TRAP:
· Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped.
Pectoral nerves: path of lateral vs. medial “Lateral
Less, Medial More”:
Lateral pectoral nerve only goes through Pectoralis major, but
Medial pectoral nerve goes though both Pectoralis major and minor.
Wrist: radial side vs. ulnar side Make a fist with your
thumb up in the air and say “Rad!”.
Your thumb is now pointing to your Radius.
· Note: ‘Rad!’ was a late 80’s catchphrase, short for ‘Radical’. Things that
were good were called ‘Rad’.
Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axilla The Median
nerve is the Middle of a giant capital “M” formed by the
musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves.
Carpal bone having the hook The Hamate has the Hook.
Flexor digitorum muscles: how they insert onto fingers · A
Superficialis Splits in two,
To Permit Profundus Passing through.
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Sympathetic: “Fight or
Parasympathetic: “Sex, Sandwiches and Sleep”
Tarsal bones of ankle “Tiger Cubs Need
Superior, then clockwise on right foot:
Rheumatic fever: Jones 5 major criteria SPACE:
Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface) “All For
One And One For All”:
Abductor pollicis longus
Flexor pollicis brevis
Opponens digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi
Abductor digiti minimi
Bifurcation vertebral landmarks · A bifurcation occurs on
4th level of each vertebral column:
C4: bifurcation of common carotid artery
T4: bifurcation of trachea
L4: bifurcation of aorta
Femoral triangle: boundaries “Femoral triangle is shaped
like a SAIL”:
Lingula location LingULa = Left Upper
Grey vs. white rami communicantes WhIte = On
the Way In to the sympathetic trunk
GrEy = Exiting the sympathetic trunk
Muscles of respiration “Don’t Exercise In
Sacral plexus: posterior components “Common Gluttons
Gluteals (superior and inferior)
Femoral cutaneous (Posterior)
Cervical vertebra: landmarks at each level “NoaH
Told MariaH To Try Cervical Counting”:
Nose (base), Hard palate: C1
Mandible, Hyoid bone: C3
Thyroid cartilage (upper): C4
Thyroid cartilage (lower): C5
Cricoid cartilage: C6
Cricoid cartilage (just below): C7
Deltoid: proximal attachments Deltoid CLASPs:
Clavicle, Acromion and Spine of the scapula.
Pharynx vs. larynx Eat Phood with your Pharynx.
Sing La La La with your Larynx
Supination vs. pronation Supination: palm to the Sun
Pronation: palm to the Plants.
Skull bones “STEP OF 6 ”
· The 6 skull bones are:
· Alternatively: “STEP OFf my skull”.
Balance organs: relative position of saccule vs. utricle
“Your SAC is below U”:
Saccule is below the Utricle.
· Note: “sac” is slang for male genitalia, and it thus down “below”.
Hand: nerve lesions DR CUMA:
Median nerve=Ape hand (or Apostol [preacher] hand)
Branches of Internal Iliac Artery “I Love Going
Places In My Very Own Underwear”:
Gluteal (superior and inferior)
Inferior vesicle (uterine in females)
Wrist: radial side vs. ulnar side “I cut off my thumb
with a radial saw!”:
The radius is on the thumb side of the arm.
Ulnar nerve to ulnar artery and radial nerve to radial artery
relations Think “peripheral nerves”:
The ulnar nerve is “ulnar” to the ulnar artery.
Radial nerve is “radial” to the radial artery.
Superior orbital fissure: Structures passing through
‘Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult’
Dermatome C6 location Stick arm out like crucifixion
stance. Curl your thumb and forefinger into an “OK” symbol while keeping
your other fingers straight.
Your hand should now look like a 6 shape.
So C6 dermatome is your thumb and top of arm (reason for
Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation, one attachment
Function: Its the Beer Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest
when wrist is oriented like holding a beer.
Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a flexor muscle, But Radial.
(Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for
Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital
Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius.
Diaphram aperatures: spinal levels “Come Enter
Vena Cava 
Extensor expansion location in the hand The eXtensor
eXpansion is on the proXimal phalynX.
Leino- definition “Leino” rhymes with “spleen-o”:
Therefore leino- means something to do with the spleen.
Kidney hilums at transpyloric plane [L1] L-1 goes
through hilum of only 1 kidney, and it’s the Left one.
Lung lobe numbers: right vs. left Tricuspid heart
valve and tri-lobed lung both on the right side.
Bicuspid and bi-lobed lung both on the left side.
Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar Examine
vertebral body shape:
Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your
Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar
Navicular contacts 3 of 5 cuneiform bones “Navicular
is like the Navigator logo”:
There are 3 things coming off each.
· See diagram.
Therefore, cuboid has to contact 2 of the 5.
Rotator cuff muscles “The SITS muscles”:
· Clockwise from top:
· A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he
SITS out for the rest of the game, and then gets sent to the minor
Median nerve: hand muscles innervated “The LOAF
Lumbricals 1 and 2
Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis
· Alternatively: LLOAF, with 2 L’s, to recall there’s 2 lumbricals.
· To remember that these are the Median nerve muscles, think “Meat
Trigeminal nerve: where branches exit skull “Standing
Superior orbital fissure is V1
foramen Rotundum is V2
foramen Ovale is V3
Tonsils: The three types “PPL (people) have tonsils”:
Cubital fossa contents “N-MAN”:
· From lateral to medial:
· Specifics are radial Nerve, biceps Muscle tendon, brachial Artery, median
Spleen: dimensions, weight, surface anatomy “1,3,5,7,9,11”:
Spleen dimensions are 1 inch x 3 inches x 5 inches.
Weight is 7 ounces.
It underlies ribs 9 through 11.
Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation “Water under
The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the
· Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead
of ovarian artery when removing uterus.
Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. internals “Hands
in your pockets”:
When put hands in your pockets, fingers now lie on top of external obliques and
fingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards midline.
· Note: “oblique” tells that must be going at an angle.
· Internal obliques are at right angles to external.
Duodenum: lengths of parts “Counting 1 to 4 but
1st part: 2 inches
2nd part: 3 inches
3rd part: 4 inches
4th part: 1 inch
Hip posterior dislocation: most likely arrangement for one
“Hitting the brake pedal before the accident”:
You are sitting, so hip is flexed, and adducted and medially
rotated so can move your foot away from the gas pedal over to the brake
· Note: car accidents are most likely cause of posterior dislocation because in
Buttock quadrant safest for needle insertion “Shut up
and butt out”:
The Upper Outer quadrant of the Buttock safely avoids
hitting sciatic nerve.
Diaphragm innervation “3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm
Diaphragm innervation is cervical roots 3, 4, and 5.
Serratus anterior: innervation and action “C5-6-7
raise your wings up to heaven”:
C567 injury causes inability to raise arm past 90 degrees up to
heaven, and results in a winging of the scapula.
· Long thoracic nerve roots (567) innervate Serratus anterior.
Thoracic duct: relation to azygous vein and esophagus “The
duck between 2 gooses”:
Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2 gooses, azygous and esophagus.
Bicipital groove: attachments of muscles near it “The
lady between two majors”:
Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove.
Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove.
Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove, between the 2 majors.
Aortic arch: major branch order “Know your ABC’S”:
Aortic arch gives rise to:
left Common Carotid
· Beware though trick question of ‘What is first branch of aorta?’ Technically,
it’s the coronary arteries.
Supine vs. prone body position Know SUPination is
your hand while carrying a bowl of SOUP. Your face follows where your
palm is facing [i.e. up]. Put a handpuppet on your hand while hand is in
supination and the puppet will be the supine position.
“Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report”
Carpal bones: trapezium vs. trapezoid location · Since
there’s two T’s in carpal bone mnemonic sentences, need to know which T is
TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapeziOID is inSIDE.
· Alternatively, TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapezOID is by
Lumbricals action Lumbrical action is to hold a pea, that is
to flex the metacarpophalangeal joint and extend the interphalangeal joints.
When look at hand in this position, can see this makes an “L” shape, since L
is for Lumbrical.
Elbow: which side has common flexor origin FM (as in
Flexor Medial, so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial side.
Medial malleolus: order of tendons, artery, nerve behind it
“Tom, Dick, And Nervous Harry”:
· From anterior to posterior:
· Full names for these are: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus,
Posterior Tibial Artery, Posterior Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallicus Longus.
· Alternatively: “Tom, Dick ANd Harry”.
· Alternatively: “Tom, Dick And Not Harry”.
Tibia vs. fibula: which is lateral The FibuLA is
Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement The two Semi’s go
together, Semimembranosus and Semitendonosus.
The Membranosus is Medial and since the two semis go together,
Semitendonosus is also medial.
Therefore, Biceps Femoris has to be lateral.
Of the semi’s, to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is on
Femoral triangle: arrangement of contents NAVEL:
· From lateral hip towards medial navel:
Nerve (directly behind sheath)
Artery (within sheath)
Vein (within sheath)
Empty space (between vein and lymph)
Lymphatics (with deep inguinal node)
· Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral.
Horner’s syndrome: components
· Horner’s is: Ptosis Anhidrosis Miosis
· Extra details with HORNY PAMELa: Ptosis Anhidrosis Miosis Enophthalmos Loss of ciliospinal reflex
Mediastinums: posterior mediastinum structures
There are 4
The esophaGOOSE (esophagus)
The vaGOOSE nerve
The azyGOOSE vein
The thoracic DUCK (duct)
Thigh: innervation by compartment “MAP OF Sciatic“: Medial compartment: Obturator Anterior compartment: Femoral Posterior compartment: Sciatic
· So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve.
Femoral artery deep branches “Put My Leg Down Please”: Profundus femoris (deep femoral artery) Medial circumflex femoral artery Lateral circumflex femoral artery Descending genicular arteries Perforating arteries
External carotid artery branches “Suzy Always Lays Flat On Pillows Making Sex Terrific”: Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Maxillary Superificial Temporal
Coelic trunk: branchesLeftHand Side (LHS): Left gastric artery Hepatic artery Splenic artery
Biceps brachii muscle: origins “You walk shorter to a
street corner. You ride longer on a superhighway.”:
· Short head originates from coracoid process.
· Long head originates from the supraglenoid cavity.
Tarsal bones “Tall Californian Navy
Medcial Interns Lay Cuties”:
· In order (right foot, superior to inferior, medial to lateral): Talus Calcanous Navicular Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneifrom Cuboid
Eye rotation by oblique muscles “ILove S&M“: Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation. Superior oblique: Medial eye rotation.
External carotid artery branches “She Lay Flaccid As Olaf’s Penis Slipped In”:
· From caudal to cephalad: Superior thyroid Lingual Facial Ascending pharyngeal Occipital Posterior auricular Superficial temporal
Brachial artery is medial to biceps tendon “BAMBI“: Brachial Artery is Medial to Biceps In elbow.
Arm fractures: nerves affected by humerus fracture location ARM fracture:
· From superior to inferior: Axillary: head of humerus Radial: mid shaft Median: supracondular
Extraocular muscles: movements “ObliqLiques cause
lateral rotation of eyeball”:
· Obliques cause lateral, all other rectii are medial rotators of the eyeball.
Action of the obliques is opposite to their names.
Action of the rectii is rightly fitting to their names.
Both superiors cause intorsion and both inferiors cause extorsion.
Tibia: muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia’s medial side) “A Girl betweenTwo Sargeants”: Gracilus is between Sartorius and Semitendonosus
Erector spinae muscles “ILike Standing”:
· From lateral to medial Illiocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
Lower limb peripheral nerve injurys “Drop into a
DEePPIT and shuffle your way out”:
Foot Drop results from Dorsiflexors and Evertors paralysis,
due to common Peroneal nerve lesion. Plantarflexion and Inversion impairment due to Tibial nerve
lesion, results in a shuffling gait.
Genu valgum vs. genu vargum Genu valGUM (knock-knee):
knees are GUMmed together.
· Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var,
so knees are far apart.
Carpel bones “So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb”:
· Proximal row, lateral-to-medial, then distal row, medial-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Hamate Capate Trapezoid Trapezium
Bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung “Astute
Anatomists Share Inside Secrets About Lungs”: Apicoposterior (S1+2) Anterior (S3) Superior (S4) Inferior (S5) Superior (S6) Anteromedial basal (S7+8) Lateral basal (S9)
Vagal nerve: path into thorax Vagus nerve, unlike phrenic,
continues through diaphragm with esophagus–it is “Not Left Behind“:
· The left vagus is anterior, right is posterior [behind].
Atrioventricular valves “LAB RAT“: Left Atrium: Bicuspid Right Atrium: Tricuspid
Cubital fossa contentsMBBR:
· From medial to lateral: Median nerve Brachial artery Biceps tendon Radial nerve
Muscles: potentially absent ones · Muscles which may be
absent but may be important:
5 P’s: Palmaris longus [upper limb] Plantaris [lower limb] Peroneus tertius [lower limb] Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall] Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]
Brachial plexus: numbers of each section · It is the same
backwards and forwards: 5–3–2–3–5: 5 Rami 3 Trunks 2 Divisions 3 Cords 5 Terminal nerves
Carpal bones “These Things Can Happen. Sensible Lovers Take Precautions”:
· Distal to proximal: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform
Umbilical ligaments: contentsIOU:
· From lateral to medial:
lateral umbilical ligament: Inferior epigastric vessels
medial unbilical ligament: Obliterated umbilical artery
median umbilical ligament: Urachus
Vetebrae subtypes “Certain Doctors Luv Saddling Coeds”:
· From superior to inferior: Cervical Dorsal Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx
Leg: anterior muscles of leg “The Hospitals
Are Not Dirty Places”: T: Tibialis anterior H: extensor Hallucis longus A: anterior tibial Artery N: deep fibular Nerve D: extensor Digitorum longus P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius]
Tarsal bones “Traverse City (is) Noted
(for) MIchigan’s Lovely Cherries”: Talus Calcaneus
(new row) Navicular
(new row) Medial Intermediate cuneiforms Lateral cuneiform Cuboid
Ear: bones of inner ear Take a Hammer: Malleus
Hit an Indian Elephant: Incus
It puts its foot in a stirrup: Stapes
· Describes the shape, and relative position (from out to in) of the inner ear
· Alternatively: “Mailing Includes Stamps”.
Bowel components “Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal”:
· 2-4 letters of each component: Duodenum Sigmoid Cecum Rectum Colon Jejunum Appendix Ileum
Tarsal tunnel: contents “Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”:
· From superior to inferior: T: Tibialis posterior F: flexor Digitorum longus A: posterior tibial Artery N: tibial Nerve H: flexor Hallucis longus
Radial nerve: muscles innervated “Try ABig Chocolate Chip Sundae, Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferably Included”:
· In order of their innervation, proximal to distal: Triceps Anconeus Brachioradialis
ext. Carpi radialis longus
ext. Carpi radialis brevis Supinator
ext. Carpi ulnaris Abductor poll. longus
ext. Poll. brevis
ext. P poll. longus
· For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and
chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic, corresponds to the
longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. carpi radialis longus and ext.
carpi radialis brevis)
Psoas major: innervation If you hit L2, 3, 4
Psoas gets sore!
Inferior vena cava tributaries “ILike To Rise So High”: Illiacs Lumbar Testicular Renal Suprarenal Hepatic vein.
· Think of the IVC wanting to rise high up to the heart.
Supination vs. pronation “SOUPination”: Supination is
to turn your arm palm up, as if you are holding a bowl of soup.
“POUR-nation”: Pronation is to turn your arm with the palm down, as if
you are pouring out whatever is your bowl.
· Alternatively, Pronation donation: Pronation is palm facing
downward, as if making a donation.
Carpal tunnel syndrome: causesTRAMP: Trauma (occupational) Rheumatiod arthritis Acromegaly Myxoedema Pregnancy
· Alternatively: ARMPIT to include Idiopathic.
Cavernous sinus contents
O TOM CAT:
O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior.
CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the
level of T from O TOM. Occulomotor nerve (III) Trochlear nerve (IV) Ophthalmic nerve (V1) Maxillary nerve (V2) Carotid artery Abducent nerve (VI) T: When written, connects to the T of OTOM.
“Virgil Can Not Make
My Pet Zebra Laugh!”: Vomer Conchae Nasal Maxilla Mandible Palatine Zygomatic Lacrimal
Cranial bones “Fraternity Parties Occasionally Teach Spam Etiquette”:
· The first two letters of each bone: Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Sphenoid Ethmoid
Superior mediastinum contents “BATS & TENT“: Brachiocephalic veins Arch of aorta Thymus Superior vena cava Trachea Esophagus Nerves (vagus & phrenic) Thoracic duct
Femoral triangle: contentsNAVY:
· In order from lateral to medial: Nerve Artery Vein Y of the groin
· Alternatively: Y = Y-fronts [male underwear].
Carpal bones “The boat sailed to the moon with 3 pEas in a rOw, at the wheel was Captain Hook“:
· Carpal bones in order of occurrence:
Boat is scaphoid. Moon is lunate. 3 is triquetrum. Peas is pisiform (stressing
the E sound for trapezium). Row is trapezoid (stressing the O for trapezOid).
Captain is capitate. Hook is hamate (hamate has the hook).
Internal iliac artery: anterior branches What Bill admitted
to Hilary: “IMilked Our Insatiable Intern’s Udders Under the Desk”: Inferior gluteal Middle rectal Obturator Inferior vesical artery Internal pudendal artery Umbilical U/D=Uterine artery (female)/ Deferential artery
Facial nerve: branches after Stylomastoid foramen “Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat (Painfully)”:
· From superior to inferior: Temporal branch Zygomatic branch Buccal branch Mandibular branch Cervical branch
(Posterior auricular nerve)
· Alternatively: “PAssing Through Zanzibar By Motor Car” (PA for Posterior Auricular).
Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract “STaRT DEEP—VD!”:
· Sperm duct system progression, from smallest to largest: ST: Seminiferous Tubules RT: Rete Testes DE: Ductus Efferentes EP: Epididymis VD: Vas Deferens
Spermatic cord contents “Piles Don’t Contribute To AGood Sex Life”: Pampiniform plexus Ductus deferens Cremasteric artery Testicular artery Artery of the ductus deferens Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve Sympathetic nerve fibers Lymphatic vessels
Maxillary artery branches “DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk IPrefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous”: Deep auricular Anterior tympanic Middle meningeal Inferior alveolar Accessory meningeal Masseteric Pterygoid Deep temporal Buccal Sphenopalatine Descending palatine Infraorbital Posterior superior alveolar Middle superior alveolar Pharyngeal Anterior superior alveolar Artery of the pterygoid canal
Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal vs. palmar in hand “PAd
The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal Abduct.
· Use your hand to dab with a pad.
CN VII innervated muscles (branchial arch 2 derivatives)
“Imagine someone making the facial expression to say ‘PSS…‘ “: Facial expression muscles Posterior belly of digastric Stapedius Stylohyoid
Sperm pathway through male reproductive tractSEVEN UP: Seminiferous tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Nothing Urethra Penis
Thoracic cage: relations to the important venous structures
Behind the sternoclavicular joints: the brachiocephalic veins begin.
Behind the 1st costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava
Behind the 2nd costal cartilage on the right the azygos vein ends.
Behind the 3rd costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava ends.
Carpal bones “Scottish Lads Take Prostitutes To The Caledonian Hotel”:
· Proximal row, then distal row: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate
· Alternatively: “Students Like Taking Prostitutes To The Carelton Hotel”.
Carpal bones “She Looks Too Pretty; Try To Catch Her”:
· Proximal row then distal row, both lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate
· Alternatively: “She Likes To Play; Try To Catch Her”.
Femoral hernia: epidemiologyFEMoral hernias are more
common in FEMales.
Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through “Live Free To See Absolutely No Insult”: Lacrimal nerve Frontal nerve Trochlear nerve Superior branch of oculomotor nerve Abducent nerve Nasociliary nerve Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve
External carotid artery branches “So Long For Acting Old Parenting Means Stability”: Superior thyroid Lingual Facial Ascending pharyngeal Occiptal Posterior auricular Maxillary Superficial temporal
Spinal cord: length in vertebral columnSCULL: Spinal Cord Until L2 (LL).
Carotid sheath contents “I See 10 CC‘s in the IV“:
I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery
10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)
CC = Common Carotid artery
IV = Internal Jugular Vein
Obturator canal: relations of structures “Who’s flying in
the top of Obturator canal? Obviously Not AVein!”: Obturator Nerve Artery Vein
Lacrimal nerve course “Lacrimal’s story of 8 L’s”: Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral
rectus, then Lets communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal
gland, then Leaves it and supplies Lateral upper eye Lid!
Facial nerve branches “Two Zombies Buggered My Cat”:
· From superior to inferior: Temporal branch Zygomatic branch Buccal branch Mandibular branch Cervical branch
· Alternatively: “Two Zulus Bit My Cat”.
· Alternatively: “Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx”.
· Alternatively: “To Zanzibar By Motor Car”.
· Alternatively: “Tall Zulus Bear Many Children”
· Alternatively: “Tell Ziggy Bob Marley Called”.
Bronchi: which is more vertical “Right on Red“:
Many places allow making a right hand turn at a red light, if you
first come to a complete stop.
A child swallowing a red penny is more likely to get it stopped
down the right bronchus, since it is more vertical.
Hip: lateral rotators “Play Golf Or
Go On Quaaludes”:
· From top to bottom: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus femoris
· Alternatively: “P-GO-GO-Q“.
Cartilage derivatives of 1st pharyngeal arch (mandibular) “I‘M ASuper Sexy Guy” (or Girl): Incus Malleus Anterior ligament of malleus Spine of sphenoid Sphenomandibular ligament Genial tubercle of mandible
Axillary artery branches “Suzy Thompkins Loves Sex, Alcohol, and Pot”:
· From proximal to distal: Superior thoracic Thoracacromial Lateral thoracic Subscapular Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex humeral
Brachial artery: recurrent and collateral branches “I Am Pretty Sexy” Inferior ulnar collateral artery goes with Anterior ulnar
recurrent artery. Posterior ulnar recurrent artery goes with Superior ulnar
· Alternatively: “IAm Pretty Smart”.
Cubital fossa contents “My Bottoms Turned Red”:
· From medial to lateral: Median nerve Brachial artery Tendon of biceps Radial nerve
Lumbar plexus “I, IGet Laid
On Fridays”: Iliohypogastric [L1] Ilioinguinal [L1] Genitofemoral [L1, L2] Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3] Obtruator [L2, L3, L4] Femoral [L2, L3, L4]
· Alternatively: “I twice Get Laid On Fridays”.
· Alternatively: “Interested In Getting Laid On Fridays?”
Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface) “A OF A OF A“:
· Thenar, lateral to medial: Abductor pollicis longus Opponens pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis.
· Hypothenar, lateral to medial: Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi Abductor digiti minimi
Orbit: bones of medial wall “My Little Eye Sits in the orbit”: Maxilla (frontal process) Lacrimal Ethmoid Sphenoid (body)
Hip: lateral rotators “Piece Goods Often Go On Quilts”: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus femoris
Erector spinae muscles “ILove Sex”:
· From lateral to medial: Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
· Alternatively: “ILong for Spinach”
· “Sex” helps you think of “Erector”, but “Long” and “Spinach” help you remember
the muscles’ names.
Axillary artery branches “Send The Lord
to Say APrayer”:
· From proximal to distal: Superior thoracic Thoracacromial Lateral thoracic Subscapular Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex humeral
Scrotum layers “Some Damn Englishman
Called It The Testis“:
· From superficial to deep: Skin Dartos External spermatic fascia Cremaster Internal spermatic fascia Tunica vaginalis Testis
Internal jugular vein: tributaries “Medical Schools Let Confident People In”:
· From inferior to superior: Middle thyroid Superior thyroid Lingual Common facial Pharyngeal Inferior petrosal sinus
Portal-systemic anastomoses: main 2 places that retroperitoneals connect into systemicRetroPeritoneals hook up with Renal
and Paravertebral veins.
Serratus anterior: innervationSALT: Serratus Anterior = Long Thoracic.
Carpal bones “Stop Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver’s Hand”:
· Proximal row, lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform
· Distal row, lateral-to-medial: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate
· Alternatively: “Stop Letting The Professor Touch The Cadaver’s Hand”
Carpum and tarsum “SCIT“:
(Artum) Superior Carpum
(Artum) Inferior Tarsum
Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation “LR6SO4
rest 3“: Lateral Rectus is 6th Superior Oblique is 4th rest are all 3rd cranial nerve
Brachial plexus organization “The Castrated
Dog Turns Rabid”:
· From lateral to medial: Terminal branches Cords Divisions Trunks Roots
Foramen ovale contentsMALE: Mandibular nerve Accessory meningeal artery Lesser petrosal nerve Emissary veins
Alternatively: also include Motor root of Trigeminal and Middle
meningeal vein under ‘M’.
Supine vs. prone body position “Supine is on your
Therefore, prone’s the “other” one.
· Also, prone to suffocate in prone position.
External carotid artery branches “Sister Lucy’s Powdered Face Often Attracts Silly Medicos”:
· Before entering the parotid gland: Superior thyroid Lingual Posterior auricular Facial Occipital Ascending pharyngeal
· Ends as: Superficial temporal and Maxillary bifurcating in the in the parotid gland
Femoral triangle: arrangement of nerve, artery, veinVAN:
· From medial to lateral: Vein Artery Nerve
· Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral.
Bronchi: which one is more vertical “Inhale a bite,
goes down the right“:
Inhaled objects more likely to lodge in right bronchus, since it is the one that
is more vertical
Cranial Nerves Mnemonic
Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Virgin Girl’s Va***a And Hymen
Old, Oliver, Ogg, Traveled, To, Africa, For, Very, Good, Vacations, And, Holidays
Once On October Thirteenth, Troublesome Abductors Filched Various Golden Valuables And Heirlooms
Oprah Ought Order Tasty Treats And Finally Value Growing Voluptuous And Happy
Old Officers Often Trust The Army For AGlory Vague And Hypothetical
Old Oppressive Oceanic Trout Trick Aquatic Fauna Very Greedily; Valiant Sharks Hunt (them).
Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final, Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly.
One Of Our Trained Teachers Asked For AGood Vada And Halwa
On Ocassion Of Tea Three Adult Friends Ate Goose Vanillae And Hen
Odysseus On Oceans Taking Trips And Finding Vast Glory Venturing After Home
One Old Ogre Took The Appletini From Very Gigantic Vampires At Happy(hour)
On Old Olympus’ Towering Top, AFinely Vested German Viewed AHawk
Once One Openly Told Tourists About Fighting Vampires Gobling Various Antelope Herds
On Old Olympus’ Towering Top, AFriendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops
Oh, Oh, Oh, To Take AFamily Vacation! Go Vegas After Hours
Only Owls Observe Them Traveling And Finding Voldemort Guarding Very Secret Horcruxes
Old Opie Occasionally Tries Trigonometry And Feels Very Gloomy, Vague And Hypoactive
Old Oprah Occasionally Trots Triumphantly About, Farting Velveeta Globs, Vaunting Accolades Hysterically
Old Oprah Occasionally Trots Triumphantly About, Farting Velveeta Globs, Valiantly Spreading Hysteria
Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Vintage Green Velvet, Simply Heave
On Old Olympus’ Towering Top, AFinn And German Viewed Some Hops
Old Open Oceans Trouble Tribesmen About Far Ventures, Global Vacations, Accusing Hydrophobia
Orange Oregon O-lineman Tried Track And Field, Victory Gave Virginia School Honor
On Occasion Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny, Very Good Vehicle Any How
The mnemonics to remember the types of cranial nerves
S = Sensory M = Motor B = Both (sensory + motor)
SomeSay Marry Money, But My Brother Says Big Business Makes Money
Silly Superman Made Mortal Brothers Make Bets Since Both Boys Made Money
Some Say Money Matters, But My Beloved Says Being Beloved Matters More.
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