Food Poisoning

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Acute Diarrhea & Vomiting Definition Symptoms Cause Diet Regimen Homeopathic Medicine Homeopath Treatment In Rajkot India

The Food Poisoning:

Acute Diarrhea & Vomiting (Food Poisoning):

Acute Diarrhea & Vomiting are common symptoms that affect people of all ages, from babies also toddlers to adults. In addition, most of the time these two symptoms are the result of a stomach bug or food poisoning and resolve within a couple of days.

  • First of all, Getting some rest and drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration usually the only treatment need. [2]
  • Moreover, Acute diarrhea, sometimes with vomiting, is the predominant symptom in infective gastroenteritis.
  • Acute diarrhea may also a symptom of other infectious and non-infectious diseases.
  • Stress, whether psychological or physical, can also produce loose stools.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are more than 1000 million cases of acute diarrhea annually in developing countries, with 3–4 million deaths, half of these in infants and children.
  • In developed countries, diarrhea remains an important problem also the elderly are most vulnerable.
  • The majority of episodes are due to infections spread by the faecal oral route and transmitted either on fomites, on contaminated hands, or in food or water.
  • Measures such as the provision of clean drinking water, appropriate disposal of human and animal sewage, and the application of simple principles of food hygiene can all limit gastroenteritis. [1]

Sign and symptoms of Acute Diarrhea & Vomiting:

  • The history should address foods ingested, duration and frequency of diarrhoea, presence of either blood or steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and tenesmus, additionally, other people have been affected.
  • Fever and bloody diarrhoea suggest an invasive, colitis, also dysenteric process.
  • An incubation period of less than 18 hours suggests toxin-mediated food poisoning, and longer than 5 days suggests diarrhoea caused by protozoa or helminths.
  • Person-to-person spread suggests certain infections, such as shigellosis or cholera.
  • Examination includes assessment of the degree of dehydration by skin turgor, pulse and blood pressure measurement.
  • The urine output and ongoing stool losses should be monitored. [1]
Toxin in food: < 6 hrs incubation
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Staph. Aureus
  • Clostridium spp. enterotoxin
Bacterial: 12–72 hrs incubation
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli
  • Shiga toxin-producing E. coli
  • Enteroinvasive   E. coli
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Campylobacter
  • C. difficile
Viral: short incubation
  • Rotavirus
  • Norovirus
Protozoal: long incubation
  • Giardiasis
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Microsporidiosis
  • Amoebic dysentery
  • Isosporiasis

 

Foods associated with infectious illness, including gastroenteritis:

Raw seafood:
Raw eggs:
  • Salmonella spp.
Undercooked meat or poultry like:
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Campylobacter  spp.
  • EHEC
  • C. perfringens
Unpasteurised milk or juice such as:
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • EHEC
  • Y. enterocolitica
Unpasteurised soft cheeses for example:
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • ETEC
  • Y. enterocolitica
  • L. monocytogenes
Homemade canned goods:
  • C. botulinum
Raw hot dogs, pâté:
  • L. monocytogenes

[1]

These infections can affect adults as well, but there are a number of other reasons why an adult may experience these symptoms simultaneously, such as drinking too much alcohol or being pregnant.

Viral gastroenteritis:

It is an infection in your intestines cause by a virus.

Viral gastroenteritis is often referred to as the stomach flu, but influenza viruses don’t cause these infections.

The viruses that most commonly cause gastroenteritis are like:

  • Norovirus
  • Rotavirus
  • Astrovirus
  • Adenovirus

While all of these viruses can affect people of any age, the latter three most often infect infants and toddlers according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

These viruses are transmit from person to person by contact with infected stool also vomit.

This can happen when an infected person doesn’t wash their hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, after that touches surfaces used by other people or prepares food for others.

Viral gastroenteritis symptoms like:
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever (but occasionally)

Food poisoning:

Food poisoning is an infection in your gut caused by bacteria. It means, You get food poisoning by eating contaminated food.

This can happen either at home or in restaurants when food handle incorrectly or not cooked properly.

Several bacteria can cause food poisoning, such as:
  • E. coli
  • Campylobacter
  • Salmonella
  • Staphylococcus
  • Shigella
  • Listeria

Symptoms of food poisoning can start within hours of eating contaminated food and often resolve within a few hours to a few days. Hence, This usually happens without treatment.

Watery diarrhea and vomiting are the most common symptoms of food poisoning.

Other symptoms such as:
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Fever

Traveler’s diarrhea:

Traveler’s diarrhea is a digestive tract disorder that’s most often caused by either viruses, parasites, or bacteria consumed in water or food.

It’s most likely to occur when you’re visiting an area with a different climate or sanitation practices than what you’re accustomed to at home.

This disorder generally clears up within two or three days.

Common symptoms include:
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Flatulence (in other words, gas)
  • Bloating
  • Fever
  • Urgent need to have a bowel movement

Stress or anxiety:

Research shows that gastrointestinal function is influenced by stress and that stress also anxiety commonly cause a number of stomach-related symptoms, For instance:

The stress hormones released by your body slow motility in your stomach and small intestines, additionally, it trigger an increase in movement in your large intestine.

Pregnancy:

  • Your body goes through numerous changes during pregnancy.
  • Morning sickness is the most common cause of vomiting in pregnancy.
  • Despite its name, morning sickness can occur at any time of the day. It affects 7 out of 10 pregnant women, usually during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.
  • Some women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, which is a condition that causes severe nausea and vomiting.
  • Diarrhea and vomiting in pregnancy can be caused by diet changes, hormonal changes, also new food sensitivities.
  • Prenatal vitamins also cause diarrhea in some people.
  • These symptoms can also be caused by gastroenteritis, which is common during pregnancy.

Overeating or over drinking:

Overindulging in food or drink can cause diarrhea and vomiting, along with some symptoms for instance:

  • A feeling of uncomfortable fullness
  • Indigestion
  • Belching
  • Heartburn

The type of food you eat also matters.

Eating large amounts of greasy or sugary foods can irritate your stomach and cause diarrhea and vomiting.

Overeating is even more likely to cause these symptoms if you already have a gastrointestinal condition, such as IBS, stomach ulcers, acid reflux, and GERD.

Alcohol causes diarrhea by speeding digestion, which stops your colon from absorbing water properly.

However, Even drinking a small amount of alcohol can have this effect.

Excessive alcohol use can cause a condition known as alcoholic gastritis, in other words, it is an irritation of the stomach lining.

Acute gastritis can occur either after binge drinking or become chronic in people who drink alcohol regularly.

Gastritis symptoms for example::
  • Upper abdominal pain or burning
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Bloating
  • Regurgitation
  • Symptoms that improve or worsen after eating, depending on the food [2]

These include stool inspection for blood and microscopy for leukocytes, also an examination for ova, cysts and parasites if the history indicates former tropical residence or travel.

Stool culture should perform and C. difficile toxin sought.

FBC and serum electrolytes indicate the degree of inflammation also dehydration.

In a malarious area, a blood film for malaria parasites should be obtained.

Blood and urine cultures and a chest X-ray may identify alternative sites of infection, particularly if the clinical features suggest a syndrome other than gastroenteritis.

Differential Diagnosis:

Infectious causes such as:

  • Gastroenteritis
  • C. difficile infection
  • Acute diverticulitis
  • Sepsis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Meningococcaemia
  • Pneumonia (especially ‘atypical disease’)
  • Malaria

Non-infectious causes:

Gastrointestinal causes for instance:
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Bowel    malignancy
  • Overflow from constipation
  • Enteral  tube feeding
Metabolic:
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Uraemia
  • Neuroendocrine tumours releasing (e.g.) VIP or 5-HT
Drugs and toxins such as:
  • NSAIDs
  • Cytotoxic agents
  • Antibiotics
  • Proton pump inhibitors
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Plant toxins
  • Heavy metals
  • Ciguatera fish poisoning
  • Scombrotoxic fish poisoning
*(5-HT = it means, 5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin; NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; VIP = vasoactive intestinal peptide)

[1]

Treatment of Acute Diarrhea & Vomiting:

Firstly, All patients with acute, potentially infective diarrhoea should be appropriately isolated to minimise person to person spread of infection.

Secondly, If the history suggests a food-borne source, public health measures must be implemented to identify the source and to establish whether other linked cases exist.

Fluid replacement:

Replacement of fluid losses in diarrhoeal illness is crucial and may be life-saving.

Although normal daily fluid intake in an adult is only 1–2 L, there is considerable additional fluid movement in and out of the gut in secretions.

Altered gut resorption with diarrhoea can result in substantial fluid loss, e.g. 10–20 L of fluid may be lost in 24 hours in cholera.

The fluid lost in diarrhoea is isotonic, so both water and electrolytes need to be replaced. However, Absorption of electrolytes from the gut is an active process requiring energy.

Infected mucosa is capable of very rapid fluid and electrolyte transport particularly, if carbohydrate is available as an energy source.

Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) therefore contain sugars, as well as water and electrolytes. In addition, ORS can be just as effective as intravenous replacement fluid, even in the management of cholera.

In mild to moderate gastroenteritis, adults should be encouraged to drink fluids also, if possible, continue normal dietary food intake.

If this is impossible, e.g. due to vomiting, intravenous fluid administration will be required.

In very sick patients, or those with cardiac or renal disease, monitoring of urine output also central venous pressure may be necessary.

The volume of fluid replacement required should be estimated based on the following considerations. for instance,

  Established deficit Replacement:
  • After 48 hours of moderate diarrhoea (6–10 stools per 24 hours), however, the average adult will be 2-4 L depleted from diarrhoea alone.
  • Associated vomiting will compound this.
  • Adults with this symptomatology should therefore be given rapid replacement of 1–1.5 L, either orally (ORS) or by intravenous infusion (normal saline), within the first 2–4 hours of presentation.
  • Longer symptomatology or more persistent/severe diarrhoea rapidly produces fluid losses comparable to diabetic ketoacidosis and is a metabolic emergency requiring active intervention.
Replacement of ongoing losses:
  • The average adult’s diarrhoeal stool accounts for a loss of 200 ml of isotonic fluid.
  • Stool losses should be carefully charted also an estimate of ongoing replacement fluid calculated.
  • Commercially available rehydration sachets are conveniently produced to provide 200 ml of ORS; In addition, one sachet per diarrhoea stool is an appropriate estimate of supplementary replacement requirements.
Replacement of normal daily requirement:
  • The average adult has a daily requirement of 1–1.5 L of fluid in addition to the calculations above.
  • This will be increased substantially in fever or a hot environment.

Antimicrobial agents:

  • In non-specific gastroenteritis, antibiotics have been shown to shorten symptoms by only 1 day in an illness usually lasting 1–3 days.
  • This benefit, when related to the potential for the development of antimicrobial resistance or side-effects, does not justify treatment, except if there is systemic involvement, a host with immunocompromised or significant comorbidity.
  • Evidence suggests that, in EHEC infections, the use of antibiotics may make the complication of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) more likely due to increased toxin release.
  • Antibiotics should therefore not be used in this condition.
  • Conversely, antibiotics are indicated in Sh. dysenteriae infection and in invasive salmonellosis in particular, typhoid fever.
  • Antibiotics may also be advantageous in cholera epidemics, reducing infectivity and controlling the spread of infection.

Antidiarrhoeal, antimotility and antisecretory agents:

  • These agents are not usually recommended in acute infective diarrhoea.
  • Loperamide, diphenoxylate and opiates are potentially dangerous in dysentery in childhood, as a result, intussusception.
  • Antisecretory agents, such as bismuth and chlorpromazine, may be effective but can cause significant sedation.
  • They do not reduce stool fluid losses, although the stools may appear more bulky.
  • Adsorbents, such as kaolin or charcoal, have little effect. [1]

Do’s:

  • Firstly, Try sucking ice cubes or icy poles if you are having trouble keeping fluids down.
  • Secondly, Regularly drink small amounts of water to prevent dehydration once the vomiting has stopped.
  • After that, Drink oral re hydration drinks such as Gastrolyte (available from pharmacies).
  • Then, If you feel like eating, eat bland foods such as crackers, rice or dry toast.
  • Rest while you feel unwell.
  • Complete any medications prescribed by your doctor.
  • Wash hands diligently after using the toilet and prior to eating. In Addition, Thoroughly clean and disinfect contaminated surfaces immediately after an episode of illness by using a bleach-based household cleaner.
  • Immediately remove and wash any either clothes or bedding contaminated with vomit or diarrhea using soap and hot water.
  • When travelling overseas, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water. In addition, Try to avoid raw foods and only eat well cooked meats.
  • At last, Drink lots of clear fluids like water, broth, clear sodas, also sports drinks.

Don’ts:

  • Do not take anti-diarrhea medications without advice from doctor.
  • After that, Avoid drink alcohol, carbonated drinks or eat spicy foods.
  • Avoid smoke cigarettes also take recreational drugs.
  • Don’t go to work or school for at least 24 hours after symptoms have stopped
  • Do not Handle or prepare food for others for at least 24 hours after symptoms have stopped. [3]

Homeopathic treatment for acute diarrhea & vomiting is  natural, safe and without any side-effects. In addition, one can enjoy immense relief from these frustrating symptoms.

It is a patient-oriented science additionally, medicines are prescribed on the characteristics of the individual instead of just the symptoms of the disease.

These medicines help in boosting the self-healing mechanism of the body also fight the infection.

They help control the symptoms of food poisoning particularly, speeding up the recovery process.

Homeopathic medicine such as, Arsenic Album the first aid medicine use in food poisoning cases.

It can be taken in 30C potency three to four times a day, but depending upon the severity of symptoms.

It helps control symptoms including diarrhea, nausea, also vomiting.

Arsenic Album – First line of treatment for food poisoning:

  • Arsenic Album is a highly recommended homeopathic medicine for food poisoning, also known as the ‘homeopathic first aid’ for food poisoning.
  • Food poisoning with diarrhea, nausea, additionally, vomiting is indicative of using this medicine.
  • Vomiting may contain either clear water or thick glairy mucus.
  • If the person eats anything, as a result, vomited out quickly.
  • The stool is loose, foul smelling, also is attended with weakness.
  • Burning pain in the abdomen may be present.
  • In conclusion, Frequent thirst for water at short intervals is usually present.

Veratrum Album – for food poisoning with copious vomiting:

  • Firstly, Veratrum Album is a homeopathic medicine prepared from a plant named ‘white hellebore.
  • Secondly, It belongs to the family Liliaceae.
  • Moreover, Veratrum Album is a beneficial homeopathic medicine for food poisoning where there is copious vomiting.
  • In addition, Even the smallest amount of water gets vomited, and excessive weakness follows the vomiting.
  • Along with this, nausea and copious loose stool may be present.
  • At last, The body may feel cold, apart from the above symptoms.

Aloe Socotrina – especially for food poisoning with diarrhea:

  • Aloe is a natural homeopathic medicine prepared from plant Aloe Socotrina. Moreover, The natural order of this plant is Liliaceae.
  • Particularly, It is indicated in cases of food poisoning with marked diarrhea.
  • The stool is watery, also there is an urgent need to pass it.
  • Rumbling and gurgling in the rectum is present, additionally, a constant bearing down is felt in the rectum.

Colocynthis – for food poisoning with abdomen cramps:

  • Colocynthis is a homeopathic medicine prepared from a plant called ‘bitter cucumber.’ In addition, It belongs to the plant family Cucurbitaceae.
  • Colocynthis is considered for food poisoning when marked abdominal cramps are present.
  • Apart from cramping, the medicine is also indicated when cutting, colicky pains in the abdomen are present.
  • Either Bending double or pressing the stomach helps relieve the pain.
  • The pain tends to worsen from slight eating or drinking.
  • Along with this loose stool, vomiting and nausea are also present.

China Officinalis – for food poisoning with diarrhea also extreme weakness:

  • Homeopathic medicine China Officinalis is prepared either from the Peruvian bark or the Cinchona tree that belongs to the natural order Rubiaceae.
  • It is a well-indicated homeopathic medicine for food poisoning with diarrhea also extreme weakness.
  • The stool is watery, foul, and painless with marked exhaustion also debility.
  • Excessive flatulence may be present, and the abdomen may be bloated.
  • China is also a well-indicated medicine for food poisoning that occurs from the consumption of bad meat, unripe fruit, and bad water.
  • It is also indicated for traveler’s diarrhea.

Nux Vomica – particularly for food poisoning with excessive retching:

  • Nux Vomica is a prominent homeopathic medicine for food poisoning with excessive retching in other words, efforts to vomit.
  • The person in such a case wants to vomit but cannot.
  • A frequent ineffectual urge to pass the stool is present.
  • The person may attempt to pass stool frequently but is only able to expel small quantities.
  • Loud, rumbling, gurgling sounds in the abdomen may be present along with the above symptoms.

Ipecac – for food poisoning with nausea also vomiting:

  • Homeopathic medicine Ipecac is prepared from the ipecac root, which belongs to the natural order Rubiaceae.
  • In addition, Ipecac is used to treat food poisoning accompanied by intense nausea and vomiting.
  • The nausea is present all the time.
  • Vomiting appears, but it does not relieve nausea.
  • Particularly, Vomiting of watery fluids, green mucus, or blackish matter may be present.
  • A frothy stool and pain around navel are often noted with the above symptoms.

Croton Tiglium – especially for food poisoning with gushing stool:

  • Croton Tig is a significant homeopathic medicine for food poisoning.
  • Hence, its chief indicating features are copious, watery, and gushing stool.
  • The urge to pass stool is constant, additionally, stool pass suddenly with great force in one gush.
  • Colic before passing stool is also present.

Podophyllum Peltatum – for food poisoning with profuse also offensive stool:

  • Firstly, Homeopathic medicine Podophyllum Peltatum a plant-base medicine prepared from Mayapple (Podophyllum).
  • Secondly, The plant belongs to family Berberidaceae.
  • Furthermore, The characteristic features to use this medicine are a profuse, offensive, yellowish or greenish stool.
  • At last, Fetid flatus, mucus in the stool, also vomiting of hot, frothy mucus may also be present.

Elaterium Officinarum – particularly for food poisoning with vomiting and diarrhea:

  • Elaterium Officinarum a natural medicine prepare from a plant commonly named as the Squirting Cucumber. In addition, It belongs to the natural order Cucurbitaceae.
  • Elaterium Officinarum is a valuable homeopathic medicine for food poisoning with violent vomiting also diarrhea.
  • The stool is copious, watery, forceful, greenish, also frothy.
  • At last, Cutting pain in the abdomen may be present.

Zingiber Officinale – especially for food poisoning by drinking impure water:

  • Zingiber Officinale prepare from the dried root of ginger, which belongs to the natural order Zingiberaceae.
  • It is a particularly, indicated homeopathic medicine for food poisoning contracted by drinking impure water.
  • Diarrhea with excessive flatulence and colic, heaviness and rumbling in the stomach, and belching are the primary symptoms so, that indicate the need for this medicine.
  • It is also suited for diarrhea that results from eating melons. [4]

What is Food Poisoning?

Acute Diarrhea & Vomiting are common symptoms that affect people of all ages, from babies also toddlers to adults. In addition, most of the time these two symptoms are the result of a stomach bug or food poisoning and resolve within a couple of days.

Homeopathic Medicines use by Homeopathic Doctors in treatment of Food Poisoning?

  • Arsenicum Alb
  • Veratrum Alb
  • Aloe Socotrina
  • Colocynth
  • China
  • Nux Vomica
  • Croton Tig
  • Podophyllum

What are the symptoms of Food Poisoning?

Best things to eat after Food Poisoning?

  • Eat bland foods (crackers, rice or dry toast.)
  • Try to avoid raw foods
  • Only eat well cooked meats.
  • Drink lots of clear fluids
  • Avoid drink alcohol, eating spicy foods.
  1. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine (22nd edition) Ch. 13
  2. https://www.healthline.com/health/diarrhea-and-vomiting#causes
  3. https://healthywa.wa.gov.au/Articles/A_E/Diarrhoea-and-vomiting
  4. https://www.drhomeo.com/homeopathic-treatment/homeopathic-medicine-for-food-poisoning/

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