Child Development

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The Child Development:

Child Development:

Definition:

Child development entails the biological, psychological also emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Additionally, It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child.

Child Development:

Child and adolescent psychiatry are relevant to all clinicians who treat either young people or their family members. Furthermore; Emotional, behavioral, and developmental problems are common among children of all ages in Child Development.[1]

A recent UK prevalence study reported 10 percent of children aged 5 to 15 years reached diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Besides this, To help these children and their families effectively requires knowledge of normal child development and of the behavioral disorders of this time of life, together with the skills needed to interview the child, assess the problem, and use basic forms of management. [1]

Lastly, The following account summarizes points that are particularly relevant to the study of childhood emotional and behavioral disorders. Additionally, It is important to remember that there are wide variations in the speed of development of healthy children.[1]

The child learns about the basic attributes of common objects, spatial relationships i.e..

  1. Firstly, By 3 months: They have developed a preference for humans over inanimate objects, and
  2. Secondly, In the next 4 months, start to distinguish between people and form specific attachments.
  3. Thirdly, From about 7 months, most children can sit without support.
  4. Fourthly, By about 8 months, the child shows signs of distress when separated from the mother, and in the presence of strangers.
  5. After that, By about 12–14 months, most can take a few steps unaided.
  6. Lastly, At a year, the child will cooperate with dressing, wave goodbye, and understand simple commands. They should also have a regular pattern of feeding and sleeping. Additionally, The child forms a strong, secure emotional bond with their regular cares.[1]

The child begins to walk, explores the environment, also learns that this exploration will be limited at times by the parents (e.g. to avoid danger). The parents demand more of the child as they encourage bowel and bladder training i.e.

  1. Firstly, From 18 months, the child will show some interest in peers.
  2. Secondly, By 2 years will play alongside (but not with) them. They will be able to recognize themselves in a mirror, also start to understand symbols and make-believe play.
  3. Lastly, By the age of 20 months most children have learnt the words ‘dada’, ‘mama’, and three others. Generally, As speech and language comprehension increase, it becomes easier for the parents to understand their child’s wishes and feelings and to respond to them appropriately.[1]
  • The child can run, and learns to draw circles, crosses, and then triangles. Additionally, In this period there is rapid development of language and intellectual functions also children ask many questions.
  • Moreover, Attention span increases, motor skills are refined, and continence is achieved. In detail, Children become less self-centered and more sociable and they learn to share in the life of the family. During this period children are capable of vivid fantasy, expressed in imaginative games. Lastly, Play helps children to learn how to relate to other children and adults, explore objects, and increase their motor skills.[1]
  • By 6 years, the child should be able to skip and hop, draw simple shapes, and know left from right. Furthermore, Speech is usually fluent, and they are able to dress themselves alone.
  • Upon starting school, children learn about social relationships with other children and with adults other than the parents. Additionally, Skills and knowledge increase. Ideas of right and wrong develop further at this age as the influence of school is added to that of the family.
  • Lastly, Children develop a feeling of self-worth, while learning that they are less successful in some activities than their peers are. [1]

Considerable changes—physical, psychosexual, also social—take place in adolescence and they are usually accompanied by some emotional turmoil. In detail, The individual has to come to terms with a new physical self, develop a sense of personal identity and a value system, meet school demands, establish vocational skills, adapt to emotional independence from their parents.

In most this occurs relatively smoothly, but it can be a difficult time, and is frequently when psychiatric problems develop.

Among older adolescents rebellious behavior is common, especially during the last years of compulsory attendance at school. Lastly, Other common problems include relationships, sexual difficulties, delinquent behaviour, excessive drinking of alcohol, and abuse of drugs and solvents. [1]

Child and adolescent Psychiatry Vs. Adult Psychiatry:

  • Generally, Development is a dynamic process; children’s behaviour and emotions change with age and psychiatrists’ assessment and treatment need to reflect this.
  • Moreover, A child is not an isolated individual; they come in the midst of a family unit and social situation. It may not always be the child who has the greatest need for psychiatric attention.
  • It is usually the parents who present with concern that there is a problem with their child, rather than the patient themselves identifying a difficulty.
  • Children are smaller than and have different physiology from adults; therefore, appropriate medications must be prescribed.
  • In detail, Children are dependent on others for all of their needs.
  • Young people tend to have less choice about their home environment, school, activities, and friends than adults do.
  • Besides this, Children are highly receptive to changes in their environment. So that, many forms of treatment (e.g. behavior, art, play therapy) that use this have much greater importance.
  • There are some conditions (e.g. enuresis) that the majority of children will ‘grow out of.
  • Those less than 18 years of age are minors in the eyes of the law, and therefore others can make decisions for them. [1]

 

Motor Development:

4 weeks Now your child can be held in sitting position. Additionally, If put on his tummy, will hold chin up momentarily.
6 weeks When put on his tummy, can hold chin up upto 45° above couch. 8 Can hold head up in sitting position but recurrently bobs forward. Additionally, If held in standing position can hold head up.
8 weeks Can hold head up in sitting position but recurrently bobs forward. Additionally, If held in standing position can hold head up.
12 weeks When put on his tummy – can hold chin and shoulders off couch prolongedly, so that plane of face is at an angle of 45-90° from couch, can bear weight on forearms.
16 weeks In sitting position can hold up constantly, also looks actively around.
18 weeks In brief, Has full control over head
24 weeks Can bear weight on extended hands when put on his tummy, lifts up his head above couch when you are about to lift him up and holds hands out, can roll from prone to supine.
28 weeks Bears weight on one hand when put on his tummy, sits with hands forward for support, rolls from his back onto his tummy, can stand for short period when supported.
32 weeks Readily bears weight on legs when supported, sits for a few moments unsupported.
36 weeks Stands holding onto furniture, can sit steadily for 10 minutes, may progress backward while trying to crawl.
40 weeks Can pull himself to standing or sitting position, crawls, pulling self forward with hands, also abdomen on couch.
44 weeks When standing holding on to some support he lifts and replaces one foot.
48 weeks Walks sideways holding onto furniture, walks with two hands held, also can turn around in sitting position.
1 year Walks with one hand held, can walk on hands also feet like a bear, may shuffle on buttocks also hands.
13 months Stands alone especially for a moment.
15 months Can get into standing position without support, creeps upstairs, walks without help with broad-base, high-stepping gait also steps of unequal length and direction.
18 months Climbs stairs unaided- holding rail, seats himself on chair, pulls toy while walking.
21 months Walks backward, picks up objects without falling, also can climb up 2 stairs at a time.
2 years Goes up also down the stairs alone – 2 per step.
2.5 years Jumps with both feet, walks on tiptoe when you ask him to.
3 years Goes upstairs 1 step at a time and climbs down 2, Jumps off bottom step, stands on 1 foot for a few seconds, rides tricycle.

[2]

Language Development:

28 weeks Says “da”, also “ba”, “ka”.
32 weeks Combines syllables- “da-da”, also “ba-ba”.
44 weeks Says one word with meaning.
1 year Says either two or three words with meaning.
15 months In brief, Jargon
21 months Joins two words together, asks for things, also repeats what you say.
2 years Uses words- I, me, you, in detail talks incessantly.

[2]

 

Adaptive Development:

12 weeks Pulls at his dress, holds rattle voluntarily when placed in his hand; retains it for more than a moment, desire to grasp objects seen.
18 weeks Brings hands together and plays with them, approaches object with hands, but overshoots the mark and fails to reach it, tries to shake rattle when placed in his hands.
20 weeks Deliberately grasps objects, plays with his toys, splashes in the bath also crumples paper.
24 weeks Grasps his feet, also holds bottle.
28 weeks Transfers objects from one hand to another, bangs object on table, puts all objects into his mouth, loves to play with paper, also feeds himself with biscuits.
36 weeks Can pick up small objects between finger also thumb.
40 weeks Goes for objects with index finger, also can release objects deliberately.
44 weeks Will place object in your hand if you request but will not release it.
48 weeks Rolls ball towards you, gives and takes toys while playing, will release objects in your hands.
13 months Can hold two cubes in one hand, also makes lines/marks with pencil.
15 months Builds towers with cubes, throws objects on the floor, also takes off shoes.
18 months Manages a spoon, turns 2-3 pgs of a book at a time, scribbles, takes off socks, also unzips fasteners.
2 years Turns book pages singly, turns doorknobs, unscrews lids, puts on shoes, socks, pants, washes also dries hands.
2.5 years Holds pencil in hand instead of fist.
3 years Dresses also undresses self if helped with buttons and about back and front and right foot for shoe, Unbuttons front buttons, can be trusted to carry china.

[2]

 

Socio-Personal Development:

4 weeks  Firstly, Will watch you as you talk.
6 weeks After that, Smiles at you
8 weeks Not only smiles at you when you speak to him but vocalizes with pleasure, squeals with pleasure.
16 weeks Gets excited when he sees toys, shows considerable interest in bottle/breast, strange rooms, laughs aloud, likes to be propped up in sitting position, turns head towards sound.
20 weeks Smiles at himself in the mirror, when he drops his rattle he looks to see where it has gone to.
24 weeks Tries to recover rattle when dropped, may blow bubbles or protrude tongue while imitating you, is afraid of strangers and feels shy, laughs when head is hidden in towel in peep-bo game, shows likes and dislikes for food.
28 weeks Pats his image in the mirror, will respond when you call him by his name.
32 weeks Reaches persistently specifically for toys out of reach, responds to “no”.
36 weeks Will put arms in front of his face in order to prevent you from washing it.
40 weeks May pull your clothes to attract your attention, waves bye-bye, holds arm out for either sleeve or foot up for socks.
44 weeks Covers his own face in towel in peep-bo game, puts objects in also out of containers.
48 weeks Repeats performances which you laugh at, additionally, shows interest in simple picture books.
12 months Will understand your questions like,” where is your book?”, “where is your shoe?”, besides this will kiss you on request.
13 months Will kiss his mirror image.
15 months Will point out the objects he wants, pats pictures also kisses animal pictures, feeds himself, can manage a cup.
18 months Will point correctly at pictures you name, can name simple objects, points to nose etc. when you ask, carries out your orders, tries to imitate you in domestic work.

[2]

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Child Development?

Basically, Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth also the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Additionally, It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child.

What are the 5 stages of Child Development?

  • First year
  • Second year
  • Age of 2-5 years
  • Later childhood
  • Adolescence

What ae the 4 types of Child Development?

  • Firstly, Motor development
  • Secondly, Language development
  • Thirdly, Adaptive development
  • Lastly, Socio-personal development
    1. Psychiatry, Fourth Edition – Oxford Medical Publications -SRG-by John Geddes, Jonathan Price, Rebecca McKnight
    2. Hompath zomeo ultimate LAN (Software)

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